Science stuff about refraction

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Science stuff about refraction

In opticsrefraction is a phenomenon that often occurs when waves travel from a medium with a given refractive index to a medium with another at an oblique angle. Its wavelength increases or decreases, but its frequency remains constant. A ray traveling along the normal perpendicular to the boundary will suffer change in speed, but not direction.

Understanding of this concept led to the invention of lenses and the refracting Science stuff about refraction. Refraction can be seen when looking into a bowl of water. Air has a refractive index of about 1. This is due to the bending of light rays as they move from the water to the air.

Once the rays reach the eye, the eye traces them back as straight lines lines of sight. The lines of sight shown as dashed lines intersect at a higher position than where the actual rays originated. This causes the pencil to appear higher and the water to appear shallower than it really is.

The depth that the water appears to be when viewed from above is known as the apparent depth. This is an important consideration for spearfishing from the surface because it will make the target fish appear to be in a different place, and the fisher must aim lower to catch the fish.

Conversely, an object above the water has a higher apparent height when viewed from below the water. The opposite correction must be made by an archer fish.

But, as the angle of incidence approaches 90o, the apparent depth approaches zero, albeit reflection increases, which limits observation at high angles of incidence. Conversely, the apparent height approaches infinity as the angle of incidence from below increases, but even earlier, as the angle of total internal reflection is approached, albeit the image also fades from view as this limit is approached.

Diagram of refraction of water waves The diagram on the right shows an example of refraction in water waves.

Ripples travel from the left and pass over a shallower region inclined at an angle to the wavefront.

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The waves travel slower in the more shallow water, so the wavelength decreases and the wave bends at the boundary. The dotted line represents the normal to the boundary. The dashed line represents the original direction of the waves. This phenomenon explains why waves on a shoreline tend to strike the shore close to a perpendicular angle.

As the waves travel from deep water into shallower water near the shore, they are refracted from their original direction of travel to an angle more normal to the shoreline.

Glass has a higher refractive index than air. When a beam of white light passes from air into a material having an index of refraction that varies with frequency, a phenomenon known as dispersion occurs, in which different coloured components of the white light are refracted at different angles, i.

The different colors correspond to different frequencies. While refraction allows for phenomena such as rainbows, it may also produce peculiar optical phenomenasuch as mirages and Fata Morgana.

Science stuff about refraction

These are caused by the change of the refractive index of air with temperature. The refractive index of materials can also be nonlinear, as occurs with the Kerr effect when high intensity light leads to a refractive index proportional to the intensity of the incident light.

Atmospheric refraction - Wikipedia

Recently, some metamaterials have been created that have a negative refractive index. With metamaterials, we can also obtain total refraction phenomena when the wave impedances of the two media are matched.

There is then no reflected wave. First, as light is entering a drop of water, it slows down. This round shape will bend the light outwards and as it spreads out, the image you see gets larger. Refraction of light at the interface between two media.Ontario science curriculum.

Has lesson plans, experiments and activities (Ont. 6 and 8) on light and optics, electricity, cells, tissues and organ systems, diversity of living things, air/flight, machines and mechanical efficiency.

Splatter blood for blood spatter analysis. First we will let you in on a little secret. When you or your brother or sister do something wrong, your parents have to figure out who did it. The Science of Ocean Waves: Ripples, Tsunamis, and Stormy Seas by J.

B. Zirker is a fascinating look at ocean waves and the science behind the discoveries of those who have studied ocean waves. Refraction: Refraction, in physics, the change in direction of a wave passing from one medium to another caused by its change in speed.

For example, waves in deep water travel faster than in shallow. If an ocean wave approaches a beach obliquely, the part of the wave farther from the beach will move faster. Science news and science articles from New Scientist.

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