Let's define this first:
His study of sexual development through psychoanalysis led him to publish Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. He published his groundbreaking book on the development of key cognitive abilities in children several years later in The Heinz Moral Dilemma created by Kohlberg was designed to systematically separate moral thinkers into one of the six stages, and Kohlberg became famous for his moral quandaries.
Not only standing the test of time, these theories have entered into widespread usage in the fields of psychology, sociology, and education. Counselors, teachers, clinical psychologists, modern psychoanalysts, daycare workers, and parents alike all find themselves referring to the work of these men and their Stage Theories.
His eight-stage theory of human development begins in infancy and spans through adulthood. According to Erickson, infants whose parents regularly provide them with food, care, and comfort will develop a sense of security, believing that people they encounter can be reasonably relied upon in times of need.
Conversely, infants with negligent or abusive parents will ultimately come to mistrust others, having learned a form of dysfunctional self-reliance birthed out of insecurity.
In this stage, children gain motor control, which leads to basic mobility. They are able to feed themselves, go to the bathroom, and explore their surroundings as means of exercising an Key figures of psychosocial theory will. Parents must be careful not to demand too much from the toddler, as doing so will lead to frustration, forcing the child to focus on his or her inability.
Shame and doubt result.
To prevent this, parents need to allow children to exercise their autonomy, become increasingly self-sufficient, and progress at their own pace. In this stage, the preschooler age 4 to 6 moves from exploring the world to attempting to master it.
A sense of personal initiative leads to ambition, where children are likely to seek to fulfill their own desires on their own.
This desire, of course, builds on the autonomy they have developed and is itself the stepping stone to industry in the next stage.
At this crucial age in psychosocial development, it is vital that parents and educators support children in their endeavors.
Belittling these ambitions, or worse, condemning them, creates and unhealthy tension between internal desires and external requirements.
Shame is often the result. Children age 6 to 12 begin to develop a stronger sense of creative ability and a corresponding sense of accomplishment as they achieve in their endeavors. Almost entirely self-governed projects characterize this period, where children initiate the project, stick to it, and feel good about their success.
If this process is encouraged, children discover their identity as industrious individuals capable of contributing to society. If the process is discouraged, children begin to doubt their ability to carry personal projects to completion.
This can make them feel inferior to their parents, teachers, and peers. During adolescence, the transition from childhood to adulthood really begins. Children begin to explore the possibilities available to them, hoping to shape a clear, independent identity based on their own volition.
Success at this crucial point in social development sets the tone for a healthy locus of control. These individuals become capable of finding their "role" in the greater social environment around them. Conversely, children unable to establish a healthy identity, whether because of a lack of freedom or a lack of opportunity, dysfunction results along with confusion about how to apply their abilities to advantageous ends.
As individuals move into adulthood, both the capacity and need for meaningful intimacy becomes increasingly relevant, and a desire to find personal fulfillment through relationships with non-family members emerges.
When this desire is adequately met in stable, committed, and rewarding relationships, a feeling of safety and a sense of belonging develop, leading to the development of a clear social identity--the individual finds meaning in his or her community.
Failure to form long-term relationships based on commitment can cause frustration and fear, leading to avoidance tendencies as a defense mechanism against potential rejection.
Long-term isolation often precipitates feelings of loneliness and depression.The psychodynamic theories of personality are mainly composed of famous theorists such as Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson and Alfred Adler. The Object Relations Theory also belongs to this group of personality theories.
Let's see how each theory explains the nature and process of personality. Theory of Psychosocial Development. Key concepts of Explanation of the Theory Key figures I need a chart of theories for behavioral and cognitive theories am happy to provide you with more theories if need. Psychosocial Theory.
Key figures and concepts of personality formation: Psychosocial theory key concepts are examined. The Applicability, cultural utility for the psychosocial theory is examined. $ Add Solution to Cart Remove from Cart. See Also This Related BrainMass Solution. Key Figures Of Psychosocial Theory.
PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORIES in the APPLICATION of CRIMINAL JUSTICE Mark P. Robertson Deviant Behavior Instructor Tomasina Cook EMPIRE STATE COLLEGE July 30, There are several Psychosocial Theories pertaining to human behavior.
The relation of some of these theories can be directly applied to the Criminal Justice field. Jan 05, · Everything about the theory of psychosocial development and its stages identified by Erik Erikson and each age ranges. Those who do not get what they want from the groups can try to be like an important figure of the public (or a famous person).
According to Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, the way to complete the 4/5(1). Theorists and Key Figures E-F-G This subpage provides very brief biographical notes regarding individuals who are important theorists, researchers, or contibutors to narrative psychology, the interpretive turn in psychology and the social sciences, and the diverse influences upon narrative which this resource guide details.