Strategic developments[ edit ] The Western Front — Allied war strategy for was decided at the Chantilly Conference from 6—8 December Simultaneous offensives on the Eastern Front by the Russian army, on the Italian Front by the Italian army, and on the Western Front by the Franco-British armies, were to be carried out to deny time for the Central Powers to move troops between fronts during lulls. In JanuaryJoffre had agreed to the BEF making its main effort in Flanders, but in February it was decided to mount a combined offensive where the French and British armies met, astride the Somme River in Picardy before the British offensive in Flanders.
Planning and Preparation The Battle of the Somme 1 July - 18 November was a joint operation between British and French forces intended to achieve a decisive victory over the Germans on the Western Front after 18 months of trench deadlock.
In DecemberAllied commanders had met to discuss strategies for the following year and agreed to launch a joint French and British attack in the region of the River Somme in the summer of This major offensive required both men and munitions.
The British plan of attack was primarily down to two commanders. Rawlinson advocated a more limited approach to the attack, but the more optimistic Haig wanted to achieve more distant objectives.
Like the British Army as a whole, neither commander had been involved in an offensive on this scale before. The Artillery Bombardment A seven-day preliminary bombardment began on 24 June in an attempt to cut the barbed wire in front of the German lines and destroy trench defences and artillery.
In the week leading up to the battle, over 1. However, the British guns were too thinly spread to achieve this goal and around two thirds of the shells were shrapnel, which were largely ineffective against the concrete dugouts.
The British artillery was also unable to neutralise the German artillery, which would prove critical on the first day of the battle. The infantry assault was scheduled for 29 June but was postponed for 48 hours due to bad weather.
Despite the two extra days of bombardment, no additional shells were available.
The First Day The offensive began at German machine-gunners emerged from their intact shelters and mowed down the oncoming British infantry. At Thiepval, the 36th Ulster Division seized the Schwaben Redoubt but was forced to withdraw because of lack of progress to its left and right.
Elsewhere some British infantry made it into German positions but were forced to withdraw in the face of determined resistance and a huge volume of German artillery fire.
But there was no question of suspending the offensive with the French still heavily engaged at Verdun. The British did not achieve the quick breakthrough their military leadership had planned for and the Somme became a deadlocked battle of attrition. The remainder of the battle was characterised by relentless British attacks and equally determined German counterattacks.
Longueval was cleared by the end of the month, but the Germans in neighbouring Delville Wood held out until 27 August. High Wood was unoccupied on the morning of 14 July, but the British missed this opportunity and it took another two months to capture the wood.
Of 49 tanks available to support the infantry, only 36 reached their starting points, though these caused alarm among the German defenders. Flers and Courcelette fell but the advance on 15 September was limited to about 2, yards 2,m on a three-mile 4.The Battle of the Somme (US title, Kitchener's Great Army in the Battle of the Somme), is a British documentary and propaganda war film, shot by two official cinematographers, Geoffrey Malins and John McDowell.
Get fast, free shipping with Amazon PrimeFast Shipping · Shop Our Huge Selection · Explore Amazon Devices · Deals of the Day2,,+ followers on Twitter. Aug 10, · Directed by Geoffrey Malins.
With General Beauvoir De Lisle.
Documentary (with some re-enacted footage) of the British army's participation in the Battle of the Somme in France during World War I/10(). T he Battle of the Somme was one of the costliest engagements of the First World War.
In the summer of the line of trenches demarcating the Western Front stretched from the English Channel across the length of France to the Swiss border.
The Battles of the Somme, 1 July – 18 November the Somme. A Franco-British offensive that was undertaken after Allied strategic conferences in late , but which changed its nature due to the German attack against the French in the epic Battle of Verdun, which lasted from late February to November.
The Battle of the Somme, fought in northern France, was one of the bloodiest of World War One. For five months the British and French armies fought the Germans in a brutal battle of attrition on a mile front.